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Who could understand Allama Iqbal better than the Quaid-i Azam himself, who was his awaited "Guide of the Era"? The Quaid-i Azam in the Introduction to Allama Iqbal's letters addressed to him, admitted that he had agreed with Allama Iqbal regarding a State for Indian Muslims before the latters death in April, 1938.

The Quaid stated:

His views were substantially in consonance with my own and had finally led me to the same conclusions as a result of careful examination and study of the constitutional problems facing India and found expression in due course in the united will of Muslim India as adumbrated in the Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League popularly known as the "Pakistan Resolution" passed on 23rd March, 1940.

Furthermore, it was Allama Iqbal who called upon Quaid-i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah to lead the Muslims of India to their cherished goal. He preferred the Quaid to other more experienced Muslim leaders such as Sir Aga Khan, Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Nawab Muhammad Isma il Khan, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Nawab Hamid Ullah Khan of Bhopal, Sir Ali Imam, Maulvi Tameez ud-Din Khan, Maulana Abul Kalam, Allama al-Mashriqi and others. But Allama Iqbal had his own reasons. He had found his "Khizr-i Rah", the veiled guide in Quaid-i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who was destined to lead the Indian branch of the Muslim Ummah to their goal of freedom. Allama Iqbal stated:

I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India, and perhaps to the whole of India.

Similar sentiments were expressed by him about three months before his death. Sayyid Nazir Niazi in his book Iqbal Ke Huzur, has stated that the future of the Indian Muslims was being discussed and a tenor of pessimism was visible from what his friends said. At this Allama Iqbal observed:

There is only one way out. Muslim should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defence of our national existence.

He continued:

The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League. And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims.

Matlub ul-Hasan Sayyid stated that after the Lahore Resolution was passed on March 23, 1940, the Quaid-i Azam said to him:

Iqbal is no more amongst us, but had he been alive he would have been happy to know that we did exactly what he wanted us to do.

But the matter does not end here. Allama Iqbal in his letter of March 29, 1937 to the Quaid-i Azam had said:

While we are ready to cooperate with other progressive parties in the country, we must not ignore the fact that the whole future of Islam as a moral and political force in Asia rests very largely on a complete organization of Indian Muslims.

According to Allama Iqbal the future of Islam as a moral and political force not only in India but in the whole of Asia rested on the organization of the Muslims of India led by the Quaid-i Azam.

The "Guide of the Era" Iqbal had envisaged in 1926, was found in the person of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The "Guide" organized the Muslims of India under the banner of the Muslim League and offered determined resistance to both the Hindu and the English designs for a united Hindu-dominated India. Through their united efforts under the able guidance of Quaid-I Azam Muslims succeeded in dividing India into Pakistan and Bharat and achieving their independent homeland. As observed above, in Allama Iqbal's view, the organization of Indian Muslims which achieved Pakistan would also have to defend other Muslim societies in Asia. The carvan of the resurgence of Islam has to start and come out of this Valley, far off from the centre of the ummah. Let us see how and when, Pakistan prepares itself to shoulder this august responsibility. It is Allama Iqbal's prevision.

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Quaid-e-Azam being received by PAF officer at Lahore Airport
"Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. Hailed as 'Great Leader' (Quaid-e-Azam) of Pakistan and its first Governor General, Jinnah virtually conjured that country into statehood by the force of his indomitable will." ( Prof. Stanley Wolport)

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is one of the most dynamic leaders of modern times. As is evident from Wolport's opening paragraphs of the Quaid's biography, 'Jinnah of Pakistan', he was a complete leader. His foresight was tremendous. During his stay in Europe, he had watched the emergence of air power very closely. From its limited role in the First World War to the unprecedented death and destruction unleashed on humanity by the use of this new weapon, the Quaid perceived the overriding role that airpower would play in future conflicts.

In 1936, Quaid-e-Azam met the Muslim Officers and men of Royal Air Force at Lahore. He was very keen to discuss their progress and participation in the Air Force. He urged them to work hard and acquire the knowledge requisite to flying and maintaining aircraft. This evinces his interest in air power and its emerging potentials.

Pakistan Air Force has been lucky to have received the Quaid's special attention. PAF Base Masroor then known as Mauripur has the unique distinction of welcoming the Quaid in August 1947 when he flew in the Viceroy's Dakota to take up his mantle as the Governor General of an independent Pakistan. People from all walks of life thronged to Mauripur to catch a glimpse of their 'Messiah of the promised land'.

As the Quaid alighted from the aircraft, accompanied by his sister, Miss Fatima Jinnah and his ADCs' his face beaming with delight, the cries of Pakistan Zindabad, Quaid-e-Azam Zindabad, rent the air. A wave of unbounded enthusiasm swept the entire ground. The people broke the cordons put up by the police and rushed towards the aircraft. The Quaid stopped on the last step of the aircraft's gangway and with a wave of his hand, beckoned the crowd, to go back behind the barriers. They retreated instantly as if they had been pushed by a magic wand. The lesson of discipline had been driven home.


It was the Quaid's amazing prescience that convinced him of the inseparable link between survival and air power which would guarantee the security of Pakistan in the shadow of the neighbouring implacable enemy. It was his love of PAF which, on 13 April, 1948 brought him to the RPAF Flying School at Risalpur despite his poor health.


Accompanied by his sister, Miss Fatima Jinnah, the Father of the Nation arrived at Risalpur. He was received by Air Marshal Asghar Khan, who was then Wing Commander and Officer Commanding of the RPAF Flying Training School and reviewed the ceremonial parade that comprised Flight Cadets of 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th GD (P) courses.

As the Quaid stood before this small band of adoring PAF Officers and Cadets of his, fledgling nation's air force, despite his frail health, the air reverberated with his famous speech which became a source of inspiration for PAF in the trials and tribulations of the years to come. It must be quoted in full. He said:

'I am well aware of Air developments in other countries and my Government is determined that the Royal Pakistan Air Force will not lag behind.

The Royal Pakistan Air Force has started with very few assets except loyalty and determination to succeed. But the Royal Pakistan Air Force is already taking shape; this school formed only seven months ago is a worthy example of this.

I know you are short of personnel but I understand recruitment is brisk and good material is coming forward. To fill up the gaps in the meantime the Royal Air Force Volunteers are coming forward and are welcome.

I know also that you are short of aircraft and equipment, but efforts are being made to procure the necessary equipment and orders for modern aircraft have also been placed.

But aircraft and personnel in any numbers are of little use, unless there is a team spirit within the Air Force and strict sense of discipline prevails. I charge you to remember that only with discipline and self-reliance can the Royal Pakistan Air Force be worthy of Pakistan.

I am pleased to learn of the progress which this school has made and as desired by the Air Commander and yourselves I name it from today 'The Royal Pakistan Air Force College. I thank you all and wish your school and yourselves all success.'

That was the text of the speech at Risalpur. The opening paragraph of the speech that he delivered on the occasion of his first visit to a Royal Pakistan Air Force unit must also be quoted. He said:-

'There is no doubt that a country without a strong Air Force is at the mercy of any aggressor. Pakistan must build up her air force as quickly as possible. It must be an efficient air force second to none and must take its right place with the Army and the Navy in securing Pakistan's Defence.'

These stirring words have rightly become enshrined in the creed of the Pakistan Air Force.

Quaid's towering personality radiated great courage and dynamism and his inspiring words serve as a beacon of strength in the PAF even today.

In the formative years, every officer, airman, cadet and civilian of the Air Force worked with untiring effort and never ending zeal to build PAF. The Quaid's dream of making the PAF second to none, did not take long to become a reality and the nation today is rightly proud of its Air Force as an impregnable shield of the country's airspace.

Successive leadership in the PAF pursued with continued resolve the task of building the nation's air arm from strength to strength. In keeping with the Quaid's aspirations, it behoves all of us in the PAF to indicate the Quaid's trust in our abilities to serve Pakistan with courage and dignity and make PAF a credible deterrent against our potential adversaries.

It is a unique coincidence that having received the first salute on Pakistan's soil in August, 1947 at PAF Base Mauripur, the Quaid replied his last salute also at a PAF Base. When he began his final flight from PAF Base Samungli at Quetta at 2:00 p m on September 11, 1948, Fatima Jinnah in her book Jinnah, 'My Brother', writes:-

....the pilot, and crew lined up and saluted him. He in turn lifted his hand feebly....'

The author is Group Capt Sultan M Hali

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Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the outstanding leader and a visionary statesman created this nation state of Pakistan by legal and constitutional means, with the power of the pen, speech and vote. To understand Pakistan, the reasons which led to its creation, what Pakistan stood for and was intended to accomplish, one has to understand Jinnah.

From an early age Jinnah displayed a remarkable interest in the life and conditions around him. The small world around him was the object of his interest and public events were the books he studied. At the young age of 16, he left for England to establish commercial connections in London but later he enrolled himself at the Lincolns Inn and began preparing for the Bar. He was called to the Bar at 21 and in the same year he returned to India.

As a barrister and advocate, Jinnah holds a place which is unique in the subcontinent. Great lawyers and men many years his senior acknowledged him as a master in the art of advocacy. He had the remarkable ability of making the most complex of facts look simple and obvious. He could be furiously aggressive or almost boyishly persuasive as the occasion demanded.

He possessed a remarkably clear mind and an abundance of commonsense, which is the most uncommon of qualities. Even those who disliked or disagreed with his convictions acknowledged and applauded him for maintaining the highest traditions at the Bar. He always kept away from the heat of controversies, intrigues and squabbles.

The abilities which led him to success in the legal world also suited a political career. Being endowed with qualities, such as a heart fired up by great fervour and sincerity, a clear vision and intellect, he was destined to play a prominent part in politics. With unusual powers of persuasion, luminous exposition, searching arguments and a sound judgment, he earned for himself an enviable reputation as a great debater.

Jinnah has often been referred to as brilliant and arrogant, and there is no denying the fact that he made no effort to socialise with those with whom he had little in common. He was formal and reserved in his dealings and never gave into emotions or sentiments. The overall picture of Jinnah as reflected by leaders of the subcontinent reveals that he was a man of unquestionable integrity, honesty, honour and unwavering belief in principles. His commitment to a cause he took up was definite and permanent. He spoke openly and fearlessly against discrimination, communalism, sectarianism, parochialism and believed in the separation of religion from the affairs of the state.

Advice to students

Jinnah placed great importance on the youth and gave his advice to students on several occasions. At a public meeting in Dhaka on March 21, 1948, he said:

“My young friends, students who are present here, let me tell you as one who has always had love and affection for you, who has served you for ten years faithfully and loyally, let me give you this word of warning: you will be making the greatest mistake if you allow yourself to be exploited by one political party or another…. Your main occupation should be — in fairness to yourself, in fairness to your parents, in fairness to the state – to devote your attention to your studies.”

Leaders of tomorrow

Addressing the Punjabi Muslim Students Federation at Lahore on October 31, 1947, Jinnah said:

“Pakistan is proud of her youth, particularly the students who have always been in the forefront in the hour of trial and need. You are the nation’s leaders of tomorrow and you must fully equip yourself by discipline, education and training for the arduous task lying ahead of you. You should realise the magnitude of your responsibility and be ready to bear it.”

Education policy

In a message to the All Pakistan Educational Conference in Karachi on November 27, 1948, Jinnah said that the education policy in Pakistan must be moulded on lines suited to our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to modern conditions and vast development that has taken place all over the world. He said:

“What we have to do is to mobilise our people and build up the character of our future generation. In short, this means the highest sense of honour, integrity, selfless service to the nation and sense of responsibility, and we have to see that our people are fully qualified and equipped to play their part in the various branches of economic life in a manner which will do honour to Pakistan.”

Equality

Jinnah always spoke in favour of equality, fraternity, human rights, rights of minorities, justice, freedom, integrity and fair play. He very clearly stated that Pakistan was not going to be a theocratic state as Islam demands from us tolerance of other creeds and we welcome the closest association of all those who are willing and ready to play their part as true and loyal citizens of Pakistan.

A moral and intellectual achievement

Jinnah called Pakistan a moral and intellectual achievement. He called upon Pakistanis on August 31, 1947, to build, reconstruct and re-generate our great nation. He said:

“It is in your hands, we undoubtedly have talents, Pakistan is blessed with enormous resources and potential. Providence has endowed us with all the wealth of nature and now it lies with man to make the best of it.”

Discipline and unity

In his speech at the Dhaka University in 1948, Jinnah said: “Freedom which we have achieved does not mean licence. It does not mean that you can behave as you please and do what you like irrespective of the interest of other people or of the state. A great responsibility rests on you and now more than ever, it is necessary for us to work as a united, disciplined nation. What is required of us all is a constructive spirit and not a militant spirit. It is far more difficult to construct than to have a militant spirit. It is easier to go to jail or fight for freedom than to run a government. Thwarted in their desire to prevent the establishment of Pakistan, our enemies turned their attention to finding ways to weaken and destroy us but they have been disappointed. Not only has Pakistan survived the shock of the upheaval but it has emerged stronger and better equipped than ever.”

We are all Pakistanis

In a reply to the civic address presented by the Quetta Municipality, Jinnah said:

“We are now all Pakistanis – not Baloch, Pathans, Sindhis, Bengalis, Punjabis and so on, and as Pakistanis you must feel, behave and act and you should be proud to be known as Pakistanis and nothing else.”

Jinnah’s Pakistan

Pakistan, with its strategic geographical location and an impressive population of 170 million people, a large majority of this being the youth of Pakistan waiting to be moulded in the right direction to peace, progress and prosperity, has been battling for its survival for quite some time. We need to develop leadership in Pakistan in the role model of Jinnah at all levels in the country.

Nations that forget or ignore the teachings and guidelines of their founding fathers are often doomed to disaster and end up as failed states. There is urgent need for our youth to read and understand the principles, ideals, values and vision of our founding father, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, and ensure that we achieve and have for all times to come “Jinnah’s Pakistan”.

The author is a grand-nephew of Mohammad Ali Jinnah. He is the author of several publications on Jinnah, and was conferred Sitara-i-Imtiaz for public service in education and health.

source: Dawn

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originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.
Mr Jinnah deliberating whether or not to pluck a rose. He had a dream - we all combined to mess it up.

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Despite Mountbatten's insistence to be Governor General of both India and Pakistan, Mr Jinnah refused him the honour in Pakistan. Earlier the earl asked him, Do you know what this might cost him. Jinnah replied a few thousand square miles. Mountbatten went red in the face and replied You might lose the whole of Pakistan! True to his word he took every step to strangle Pakistan in its infancy. He fell victim to a IRA bomb while yachting with his family in 1979. Here both the Governors General are seen in the constitutent assembly of Pakistan in Karachi on 14 August 1947 and their body language says it all!
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originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.
The Cabinet Mission came to India in 1946 but could not achieve a consensus and failed miserably. Its chief quickly acquired the name Lord 'Pathetic' Lawrence

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originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.
On 3 June 1947 all the Indian leaders got together and put their seal on the Partition Plan. Seated by the map on the wall is Lord Ismay, Mountbatten's Chief of Staff who probably tampered with the Radcliffe Award and gave Gurdaspur to India to keep the two new countries in a perpetual state of war over Kashmir till eternity!

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originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.
Perhaps the first 'Train March' in our history

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originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.
An ICS officer from Bengal, S C Bose (1897-1945) resigned from service and was twice elected president of the Congress but had to quit due to ideological differences with Gandhi and Nehru. He later became President of the Indian National Army during World War II. He travelled to Germany but disillusioned with Hitler, he moved to Japan and fought for the independence of India from British rule. Here he is seen in a meeting with Mr Jinnah. Bose commonly known as Netaji in India is believed to have died in an air crash on 18 August 1945 over Taiwan but his death is shrouded in mystery. He may have died as a Russian PoW in Siberia.

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originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.
Mr Jinnah's first meeting with the new viceroy Lord Mountbatten was a disaster. "It took most of the interview trying to unfreeze him" remarked Mountbatten afterwards. But at the end of the meeting things got better because a group photograph had to be taken and assuming that Edwina Mountbatten would be in the center Mr Jinnah planned that we would remark 'a rose between two thorns'. Apparently Mr Jinnah was placed in the center but he passed the remark anyway causing some laughter. The relations of the two men never improved significantly though. All the rest is history!

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originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.
I got this rare photgraph from Mahmood on Victoria Road. He could not identify the others although the man in the center resembles the Nawab of Jungadh. The British General is Douglas Gracey. Mr Jinnah seems in a relaxed mood ostensibly with his favorite 'Craven A' cigarettes, which finally got him.

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Mr Jinnah's daughter and sisters mourn his death on his funeral
A nation is orphaned, originally uploaded by Doc Kazi.

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Dina was born on 15 August 1919

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Born a Parsi, she converted to Islam on her 18th birthday and left her father's mansion with two pets only to marry Jinnah. Exactly eleven years later she was dead of an overdose of painkillers to treat her abdominal cancer. Jinnah never married again and died a lonely man. Known as the nightingale of Bombay, Ruttie died on her 29th birthday on 20 February 1929

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Speech in reply to Address of Welcome presented to Quaid-e-Azam and Miss Fatima Jinnah by the Parsi community of Sind at the Katrak Parsi Colony, Karachi: February 3, 1948.

I am thankful to you for your Address of Welcome and the kind words you have spoken about me and Miss Fatima Jinnah. I deeply appreciate your offer of loyal co-operation with the Government of Pakistan and I assure you that Pakistan means to stand by its oft-repeated promises of according equal treatment to all its nationals irrespective of their cast and creed. Pakistan, which symbolizes the aspirations of a nation that found itself in a minority in the Indian sub-continent, can not be unmindful of the minorities within its own borders. It is a pity that the fair name of Karachi was sullied by the sudden outburst of communal frenzy last month and I can not find words strong enough to condemn the action of those who were responsible for it. Government is determined in its resolve to root out lawlessness and to see that there is no recurrence of such incidents.

As you may be aware, the Government has been making genuine efforts to allay the fears and suspicions of the minorities and if their exodus from Sind still continues, it is not because they are not wanted here but because they are more prone to listen to people across the border who are interested in pulling them out. I am sorry for these misguided people for nothing but disillusionment awaits them in their promised land.

I realized that during the last few months there have been encroachments on private right of property but you should not judge Government's action too harshly. Accomodation could not be provided for the large number of Pakistan officials and foriegn legations without disturbing some of the local residents. The problem was further complicated by the influx of a large number of refugees - whose tempers had been frayed by the suffering undergone by them. These unfortunate people require sympathetic handling, and your assistance in resettling them will be most welcome.

Parsis as a community have fortunately escaped the ravages of the recent internecine conflict that has brought so much suffering to other communities, and, I see no reason why the future should hold any terror for them. They have already established a place for themselves in this country by their organizing ability, spirit of enterprise and hard work. Pakistan will provide and ample field for the outlet of their genius particularly in the realm of trade, commerce and industry and they should come forward and play their role as true citizens in making Pakistan one of the greatest nations and a land of prosperity and plenty.

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Address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th Light Ack Ack Regiments in Malir , on 21st February, 1948.


Gentlemen,

As I stated while addressing the Naval Officers and men the other day, that best way in which we can serve the cause of peace and the ideals of the United Nations Organization is by making ourselves strong so that no power may dare harbor any aggressive designs against us. We have won the battle of Pakistan's freedom but the grimmer battle for the preservation of that freedom and building it on a firmer and sounder basis is still in progress and that battle has to be fought to a successful conclusion if we are to survive as a great nation. Nature's inexorable law is 'the survival of the fittest' and we have to prove ourselves fit for our newly won freedom. You have fought many a battle on the far-flung battle fields of the globe to rid the world of the Fascist menace and make it safe for democracy. Now you have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. You will have to be alert, very alert, for the time for relaxation is not yet there. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.

In this machine age when the misdirected genius of man forges new engines of destruction everyday, you have to keep abreast of the times and keep your knowledge and equipment uptodate not because we have any evil designs against any of our neighbors but because our own security demands that we should not be caught unaware. There is nothing that we desire more than to live in peace and let others live in peace and develop our country according to our own lights without outside interference and improve the lot of the common man. This in no doubt going to be an uphill task but if we are determined to work earnestly and sincerely, and are willing and ready to make sacrifices for the collective good of our nation, we shall soon achieve the aims and the end we have in view.

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Message to the Nation on the occasion of the first Anniversary of Pakistan on 14th August, 1948.


Citizens of Pakistan,

Today we are celebrating the first anniversary of our freedom. A year ago complete power was transferred to the people of Pakistan, and the Pakistan Government, under the present Constitution as adapted, took over charge of the affairs of the country in its own hands. We have faced the year with courage, determination and imagination, and the record of our achievements has been a wonderful one in warding off the blows of the enemy which have been so often referred to before, especially the pre-planned genocide and pushing on with real constructive work internally. The result of our constructive and ameliorative work has gone far beyond the expectations of our best friends. I congratulate you all–my Ministers under the leadership of the Prime Minister, members of the Constituent Assembly and of the legislatures; officials working in various administrative departments and the members of the Defence Forces for what you have achieved during so short a period, and I thank the people of Pakistan from whom we have received patience and genuine support in every effort that we have made to put forward the program of the first year.

But that is not enough: Remember, that the establishment of Pakistan is a fact of which there is no parallel in the history of the world. It is one of the largest Muslim States in the world, and it is destined to play its magnificent part year after year, as we go on, provided we serve Pakistan honestly, earnestly and selflessly.

I have full faith in my people that they will rise to every occasion worthy of our past Islamic history, glory and traditions.

The story of the millions of refugees who had to flee from their homes across our borders and seek asylum in Pakistan is well known to you all. The tragedy occurred even before our State had had time to settle down. In fact it involved also a large proportion of the people who as Government personnel, were to set up the very machinery of the State. I know that it has not been possible to do all that might have been desired for these homeless and oppressed brethren of ours. There are still many hardships that many of them have to face. But the every fact that a large number of the refugees have already been rehabilitated in their new home, with the prospect of new and a happier life ahead of them, is an achievement of no mean order. But for the spirit of brotherhood shown by the people of Pakistan and the courage with which the people as well as the Government faced the almost overwhelming difficulties created by a catastrophe unparalleled in the history of the world, the entire structure of the State might well have crumbled down.

Disappointed in their efforts by other means to strangle the new State at its very birth, our enemies yet hoped that economic manoeuvres would achieve the object they had at heart. With all the wealth of argument and detail, which malice could invent or ill-will devise, they prophesied that Pakistan would be left bankrupt. And what the fire and sword of the enemy could not achieve, would be brought about by the ruined finances of the State. But these prophets of evil have been thoroughly discredited. Our first budget was a surplus one; there is a favourable balance of trade, and a steady and all-round improvement in the economic field.

One year is a brief period in the history of a State for finally assessing its progress or predicting its future. But the way in which tremendous difficulties have been overcome, and solid progress recorded during the last twelve months, gives a firm basis for optimism. In the administrative field, we had to start from scratch; art the center. And in the West Punjab, at the very inception of our State, we had to face very nearly a breakdown of administrative machinery. But I am glad to say that we have successfully dealt with all threats to our solidarity, and on some major questions of the day, the Pakistan Government has displayed not only its determination but its capacity to deal effectively with the various world problems that have arisen from time to time.

Nature has given you everything: you have got unlimited resources. The foundations of your State have been laid, and it is now for you to build, and build as quickly and as well as you can. So go ahead and I wish you Godspeed.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Message to the Nation on the occasion of Eid-ul-Fitr on 27th August, 1948.

On this day of rejoicing I send my greetings to Muslims all over the world and wish them very happy Eid.

For us the last Eid-ul-Fitr, which followed soon after the birth of Pakistan, was marred by the tragic happenings in East Punjab. The blood bath of last year and its aftermath–the mass migration of millions–presented a problem of unprecedented magnitude. To provide new moorings for this mass of drifting humanity strained our energies and resources to breaking point. The immensity of the task very nearly overwhelmed us and we could only just keep our heads above water. The brief span of 12 months was not sufficient to see all the Mohajreens settled in profitable employment in Pakistan. Considerable progress has been made in resettling them but a good many remain to be rehabilitated. We cannot rejoice till every one of them has been put on his feet again. I am sanguine that by next Eid this formidable and intractable problem will have been solved and all the refugees absorbed in Pakistan’s economy as useful members of society.

The history of the last 12 months has been one of continuous struggle against heavy odds, but what sustained us during these dark days, was our unity of purpose and firm resolve to see that our young State did not founder under the blows of our enemies. We have weathered the worst storms and the safety of the shore, though distant, is in sight. We can look to the future with robust confidence provided we do not relax and fritter away our energies in internal dissension. There never was greater need for discipline and unity in our ranks. It is only with united effort and faith in our destiny that we shall be able to translate the Pakistan of our dreams into reality. You are celebrating Eid today after a month of fasting. Why was fasting enjoined upon Muslims if it were not to teach them discipline and orderliness? These are the virtues to cultivate and in that lies your salvation and that of the nation.

My Eid message to our brother Muslim States is one of friendship and goodwill. We are all passing through perilous times. The drama of power politics that is being staged in Palestine, Indonesia and Kashmir should serve an eye opener to us. It is only by putting up a united front that we can make our voice felt in the counsels of the world.

Let me, therefore, appeal to you–in whatever language you may put, when the essence of my advice is boiled down, it comes to this–that every Mussalman should serve Pakistan honestly, sincerely and selflessly.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Speech on the occasion of the opening of the State Bank of Pakistan on 1st July, 1948.



Mr. Governor, Directors of the State Bank, Ladies and Gentlemen

The opening of the State Bank of Pakistan symbolises the sovereignty of our State in the financial sphere and I am very glad to be here today to perform the opening ceremony. It was not considered feasible to start a bank of our own simultaneously with the coming into being of Pakistan in August last year. A good deal of preparatory work must precede the inauguration of an institution responsible for such technical and delicate work as note issue and banking. To allow for this preparation, it was provided, under the Pakistan Monetary System and Reserve Bank Order, 1947, that the Reserve Bank of India should continue to be the currency and banking authority in Pakistan till the 30th September, 1948. Later on it was felt that it would be in that best interest of our State if the Reserve Bank of India were relieved of its functions in Pakistan, as early as possible. The date of transfer of these functions to a Pakistan agency was consequently advanced by three months in agreement with the Government of India and the Reserve Bank. It was at the same time decided to establish Central Bank of Pakistan in preference to any other agency for managing our currency and banking. This decision left very little time for the small band of trained personnel in this field in Pakistan to complete the preliminaries and they have by their untiring effort and hard work completed their task by the due date which is very creditable to them, and I wish to record a note of our appreciation of their labours.

As you have observed, Mr. Governor, in undivided India banking was kept a close preserve of non-Muslims; and their migration from Western Pakistan has caused a good deal of dislocation in the economic life of our young State. In order that the wheels of commerce and industry should run smoothly, it is imperative that the vacuum caused by the exodus of non-Muslims should be filled without delay. I am glad to note that schemes for training Pakistan nationals in banking are in hand. I will watch their progress with interest and I am confident that the State Bank will receive the cooperation of all concerned including the banks and universities in pushing them forward. Banking will provide a new and wide field in which the genius of our young men can find full play. I am sure that they will come forward in large numbers to take advantage of the training facilities, which are proposed to be provided. While doing so, they will not only be benefiting themselves but also contributing to the well being of our State.

I need hardly dilate on the important role that the State Bank will have to play in regulating the economic life of our country. The monetary policy of the bank will have a direct bearing on our trade and commerce, both inside Pakistan as well as with the outside world and it is only to be desired that your policy should encourage maximum production and a free flow of trade. The monetary policy pursued during, the war years contributed, in no small measure, to our present day economic problems. The abnormal rise in the cost of living has hit the poorer sections of society including those with fixed incomes very hard indeed and is responsible to a great extent for the prevailing unrest in the country. The policy of the Pakistan Government is to stabilise prices at a level that would be fair to the producer, as well as to the consumer I hope your efforts will be directed in the same direction in order to tackle this crucial problem with success.

I shall watch with keenness the work of your Research Organisation in evolving banking practices compatible with Islamic ideals of social and economic life. The economic system of the West has created almost insoluble problems for humanity and to many of us it appears that only a miracle can save it from disaster that is now facing the world. It has failed to do justice between man and man and to eradicate friction from the international field. On the contrary, it was largely responsible for the two world wars in the last half century, The Western world, in spite of its advantages of mechanization and industrial efficiency is today in a worse mess than ever before in history. The adoption Western economic theory and practice will not help us in achieving our goal of creating a happy and contented people. We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can save it and secure the welfare, happiness and prosperity of mankind.

May the State Bank of Pakistan prosper and fulfil the high ideals, which have been set as its goal.


In the end I thank you, Mr. Governor, for the warm welcome given to me by you and your colleagues and the distinguished guests who have graced this occasion as a mark of their good wishes and the honour you have done me in inviting me to perform this historic opening ceremony of the State Bank which I feel will develop into one of our greatest national institutions and play its part fully throughout the world.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Reply to the Civic Address presented by the Quetta Municipality on I5th June, 1948.

I thank you for your address of welcome and for the kind words and good wishes you have expressed for me and Miss Fatima Jinnah, and I greatly appreciate your handsome and generous contribution to the Relief Fund and noble cause which it represents. Though luckily Baluchistan was spared the tragedy which the Punjab went through on the estabtishment of Pakistan, and, on account of its situation, does not face the refugee problem in the same way as other ‘parts of Pakistan do, the welfare of refugees and all who suffered because Pakistan was achieved is the responsibility of us all. The relief and rehabilitation of these stricken people is a matter of great importance and urgency for Pakistan for, until they become useful members of the society, the progress of Pakistan will not be fully accelerated. Every effort made in this direction, therefore, is most welcome, as it will advance the cause of progress and welfare of Pakistan.

Quetta has been for many years an important town and cantonment: with the establishment of Pakistan, its importance has increased and will increase further. Its situation and healthy climate entitle it to special attention and I am, therefore, really glad that despite the havoc wrought by the earthquakes of 1935 and the disabilities created by the war later and the dislocation caused by the movement of population more recently it gives the appearance of an orderly and busy town. The credit for this goes to a large extent to the Quetta Municipality and the City Fathers here. The town apparently has been well-planned and whatever buildings have been put up look neat and elegant. I, share your hopes that better times are ahead and not very long hence the temporary structures, which constitute most of the town at present, will be replaced by permanent earthquake-proof buildings. While the municipality should play its part, private enterprise is necessary, so that Quetta may be as great a civil station as a cantonment and the more you improve it the more attractive it will become. For a large part of Western Pakistan it will be the natural summer resort and draw larger and larger number of visitors, which will not only be additional source of revenue but also will bring and establish contact with other parts of Western Pakistan. This ought to be kept in view. The difficulty regarding water supply and other problems should be tackled with boldness and imagination, and I am sure, Government will give you willing help whenever it is needed.

While, however, one must love one’s town and work for its welfare–indeed because of it–one must love better one’s country and work more devotedly for it. Local attachments have their value but what is the value and strength of a “part” except within the “whole”. Yet this is a truth people so easily seem to forget and begin to prize local, sectional or provincial interests above and regardless of the national interests. It naturally pains me to find the curse of provincialism holding sway over any section of Pakistan. Pakistan must be rid of this evil. It is relic of the old administration when you clung to provincial autonomy and local liberty of action to avoid control–which meant–British control. But with your own Central Government and its power, is a folly to continue to think in the same terms, especially at a time when your State is so new and faces such tremendous problems internal and external. At this juncture any subordination of the larger interest of the State to the provincial or local or personal interest would be suicidal.

Baluchistan is the land of brave independent people and to you, therefore, national freedom, honour, and strength should have a special meaning. These whisperings of mulki and non-Mulki are neither profitable for the land not worthy of it. We are now all Pakistanis–not Baluchis, Pathans, Sindhis, Bengalis, Punjabis and so on–and as Pakistanis we must feet behave and act, and we should be proud to be known as Pakistanis and nothing else. I ask you always to pause and consider before taking any step whether it is conditioned by your personal or local likes and dislikes or is determined by consideration of the good of the State. If each individual thus being scrutinizing himself and forces–for initially it will require a certain amount of force–upon himself the principal of honesty to others as well as to himself, regardless of fear or favour. I see a very bright future ahead. If individuals both officials and non-officials play their part thus and work in this spirit, the Government, the Nation and the State will immediately bear their stamp, and Pakistan will emerge triumphantly as one of the greatest nations of the world.

As you all know I am specially interested in Baluchistan because it is my special responsibility. I want to see it play as full a part in the affairs of Pakistan as any other province, but it will take time to remove the symptoms of long neglect. In order that this time may not be a minute longer than necessary, I earnestly request you to co-operate with me, to give me your selfless support, and not to make my task difficult. Representative government and representative institutions are no doubt good and desirable, but when people want to reduce them merely to channels of personal aggrandisement, they not only lose their value but earn a bad name. Let us avoid that and it is possible only if, as I have said, we subject our actions to perpetual scrutiny and test them with the touchstone not of personal or sectional interest but of the good of the State.

I thank you once-again for your generous contribution, your courtesy and for the honor you have done me by presenting this civic address and giving me an opportunity to say a few words.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Address to the Officers of the Staff College, Quetta 14th June, 1948

I thank you, gentlemen, for the honour you have done me and Miss Fatima Jinnah by inviting us to meet you all. You, along with other Forces of Pakistan; are the custodians of the life, property and honour of the people of Pakistan. The Defence Forces are the most vital of all Pakistan Service and correspondingly a very heavy responsibility and burden lies on your shoulders.

I have no doubt in my mind, from what I have seen and from what I have gathered, that the spirit of the Army is splendid, the morale is very high, and what is very encouraging is that every officer and soldier, no matter what the race or community to which he belongs, is working as a true Pakistani.

If you all continue in that spirit and work as comrades, as true Pakistanis selflessly, Pakistan has nothing to fear.

One thing more, I am persuaded to say this because during my talks with one or two very high-ranking officers I discovered that they did not know the implications of the Oath taken by the troops of Pakistan. Of course, an oath is only a matter of form; what are more important are the true spirit and the heart.

But it is an important form, and I would like to take the opportunity of refreshing your memory by reading the prescribed oath to you.

“I solemnly affirm, in the presence of Almighty God, that I owe allegiance to the Constitution and Dominion of Pakistan (mark the words Constitution and the Government of the Dominion of Pakistan) and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully serve in the Dominion of Pakistan Forces and go within the terms of my enrolment wherever I may be ordered by air, land or sea and that I will observe and obey all commands of any officer set over me…..”

As I have said just now, the spirit is what really matters. I should like you to study the Constitution, which is in force in Pakistan, at present and understand its true constitutional and legal implications when you say that you will be faithful to the Constitution of the Dominion.

I want you to remember and if you have time enough you should study the Government of India Act, as adapted for use in Pakistan, which is our present Constitution, that the executive authority flows from the Head of the Government of Pakistan, who is the governor-general and, therefore, any command or orders that may come to you cannot come without the sanction of the Executive Head. This is the legal position.

Finally, gentlemen, let me thank you for the honour that you have done me by inviting me. I will be glad to meet the officers informally, as suggested by the General Officers Commanding in his speech, and such a meeting can be, arranged at a time convenient to us both. I have every desire to keep in close contact with the officers and men of the Defence Forces and I hope that when I have little more time from the various problems that are facing us in Pakistan, which is for the moment in a state of national emergency, and when things settle down–and I hope it will be very soon–then I shall find more time to establish greater and greater contact with the Defence Forces.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Reply to the Address presented by a Deputation of the members of the Quetta Parsi Community on 13th June, 1948.

 Click to enlarge.
Receiving a Karakuli Jinnah Cap from Balochistan National Guards

Gentlemen,

I am very pleased indeed to meet you all and have an opportunity of hearing your well-considered views about Baluchistan, and I have no doubt in your sincerity and loyalty to Pakistan. Your community is really very well organised and I am happy–and I always say so–that it is better equipped than any other community that I know of in the sub-continent. You, therefore, although small in number, can make very great contribution to the welfare and progress of Pakistan and particularly Baluchistan.

Now coming nearer to Baluchistan, I know that people have not yet fully realised what present constitution is–that is true of even of well-informed and well-educated people. The establishment of Pakistan was catastrophic change and thus came so suddenly that people have not yet fully realised what it is. I dwelt on this point in my Sibi speech and may I, therefore, request you to read that speech if you can get a copy of it. I cannot go into all the details but I think as citizens you ought to know what is the real position. Under the present constitution it is the Governor-General who is vested with all authority–executive, administrative and legislative–in Baluchistan. I am, therefore, directly responsible for all executive, administrative and legislative measures that may be necessary to be adopted in Baluchistan. Rightly or wrongly the burden is placed on my shoulders. Now, you must have realised that Baluchistan has been the most neglected part of this sub-continent all these years. In some respects it is criminal negligence on the part of those who were responsible for the welfare of Baluchistan. You have got a deep-rooted ancient century–old system which is in vogue here and your administration has been stagnant for nearly a century. This is a problem that I am faced with as the Executive Head of Baluchistan. Now you cannot change these things overnight together sincerely, honestly and selflessly and as servants of Baluchistan.

In the very nature of things it will take eighteen months to two years before the new constitution of Pakistan is ready but we cannot wait until that work is completed and, therefore, I have made a small beginning, as I have said but a very important one and if as they say small beginning, but a very important one, after consulting various interests in Baluchistan, namely, I have decided to set up Governor-General’s Advisory Council. I am at it and perhaps very shortly the constitution, rules and procedure of that body will be announced. That is of course, a small beginning as I have said but a very important one and if as they say small things lead to very great things and if you handle it and manage it properly I am sure it will result in great progress and development of Baluchistan. But as I have said, it will depend on how the people of Baluchistan will handle the Governor General’s Advisory Council. This Council will enable people to associate themselves, no doubt as an advisory body, with administration–its executive and legislative side. That is the first step that I have taken because I cannot wait until we have a final constitution of Pakistan ready.

As regards your points regarding shortage of water supply and communications they are already under examination and with the help of our people and with their co-operation and advice we may be able to make some headway in both these matters.

As regards potentialities of Baluchistan you are right. I have a great deal of information about it. That question is

under our examination and I think there is a great future for Baluchistan’s development of its mineral wealth, agricultural resources, water supply, communication etc.

Finally, Gentlemen, I am sure, though small in number you may be in Baluchistan and in Pakistan as a whole, you will not lag behind in making your full contribution as true selfless Pakistanis. Although you have not struck any note of your needs and requirements as a community but you know that it is the policy of my Government and myself that every member of every community irrespective of caste, colour, creed or race shall be fully protected with regard to his life, property and honour and that there should-be peace in Pakistan and law and order should be maintained at-any cost. I reiterate that you, like any other minorities, will be treated as equal citizens with all your rights and obligations so long as you are loyal to Pakistan. I am glad and it is very refreshing that you have not gone on with the same old rut and the hackneyed phrases which are echoed in various quarters about the grievances and requests of minorities, but I must tell you that these assurances have been given and they are going to be implemented. Minority communities must not by mere words but by actions show this that they are truly loyal and they must make majority community feel that they are true citizens of Pakistan. Then you will help me and you will facilitate my task in carrying out the policy which we have laid down. You know you must dispel suspicion and distrust. It is now up to minorities to show by actions and deeds that they are true Pakistanis and dispel suspicion and distrust that has been created by deplorable and disgraceful events that have taken place.

In the end, I thank you and I am very pleased to meet you all. Let us put our heads together and work together and make Pakistan what it really and truly deserves to be.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Speech at the Opening Ceremony of the First Pakistan Olympic Games at Karachi on 22nd April, 1948.


Pir Illahi Baksh, Mr. Ahmed Jaffer, Members of the Organizing and other Committees, Ladies and Gentlemen:

It has given me great pleasure to come here today to perform the opening ceremony of the first Pakistan Olympic games. I agreed to become the patron-in-chief of the Pakistan Olympic Association in the realisation that the success of our people in all walks of life depends upon the cultivation of “Sound Minds” the natural concomitant to “Sound Bodies”. To the athletes and youth of the nation I bid welcome. My message to you is: build up physical strength not for aggression, not for militarism, but for becoming fighting fit, all your life and all the time in every walk of life of your nation wherever you be and always to be a force for peace, international amity and goodwill. After these games you shall go to the World Olympic at Wembley Stadium, London, representing us as messengers of our goodwill and my best wishes will go with you. Remember to win is nothing, it is the effort and the spirit behind the effort that count.

To the organizers of Olympic games I say well-done for successfully completing the preparations for this meet in so short a time. You say you want a Stadium and are planning to hold Pan-Islamic Olympics in l950, and I hope your wishes may materialize. It all depends on you. Your demand for a State Department of Physical Culture and Education is one which requires consideration of Pakistan Government. I hope that they will examine. this aspect of the matter in dealing with many educational problems that are facing us.

In the end, I thank you for your warm welcome and wish you every success.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Reply to the Speech made by His Excellency the Ambassador of Afghanistan at the time of presenting Credentials on 8th May, 1948.

Your Royal Highness,

It gives me very great pleasure indeed to welcome you today as the first Ambassador from Afghanistan. The Government and people of Pakistan greatly appreciate the action of His Majesty the King of Afghanistan in sending to us an Ambassador from the Royal family of Afghanistan. We hope and trust that with a Representative of Your Royal Highness’ distinction and experience the age-old link which bind our two peoples will be further strengthened thus paving the way for a bright and happy future for both our countries.

Your Royal Highness has rightly referred to the natural bonds of friendship and affection, which bind the people of our two countries. It could hardly be otherwise as these bonds are based on ties of faith and culture and common ideals. With such powerful bonds already in our favour we cannot, I feel, fail to bring the people of our two countries closer towards each other closer than they were before the birth of Pakistan.

As a newborn Sate, Pakistan desired nothing so ardently as the goodwill of the world. Its people are determined to work with heart and soul in the task of consolidating their new liberty and while so engaged in this great task they will be deeply conscious of the help and co-operation extended to them by the other States of the world particularly at this moment. We are indeed glad that we have amongst us today a distinguished representative of our closest neighbour and, Pakistan, I am sure, very much appreciates the message of good wishes Your Highness has brought to us.

Your Royal Highness can rest assured that in striving to cement the bonds of friendship that already exist between our two peoples and my Government will give you all possible help and co-operation. Coming as you do as a representative of the great Muslim nation, you are most welcome to us and we hope and trust that you will be able to discharge your duties successfully in the light of your good wishes and sentiments for Pakistan.

I hope that your Royal Highness’s stay in Karachi will be very happy and comfortable.

Pakistan Zindabad

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Reply to the Address presented by the Karachi Chamber of Commerce on 27th April 1948.

It gives me great pleasure, Mr. Chairman, to be here this morning with you all at this you’re 88th Annual General Meeting. I presume it is an accident to hold this meeting in the premises of the Karachi Cotton Association, for one can hardly dissociate Karachi from commerce and the commerce of this place from cotton. You have, Mr. Chairman, covered a very wide field in your address, from the founding of the sovereign and independent State of Pakistan to the petty usurpations of power by minor official here and there over this far-flung Dominion, from the intricacies of cotton trade to the common place of delays. You will, however, hardly expect me to follow you in every detail in my reply. I cannot, however, let an opportunity, such as you have presented to me today, pass without calling attention to certain salient points arising out of your address.

Let me, Mr. Chairman first acknowledge the tribute which you have justly paid to my Government and my people for the manner in which they faced up to the tragic events which so closely followed the establishment of Pakistan. It was inevitable that many otherwise sensible people should greet Pakistan as an unwanted and intolerable child whose birth could not long survive their displeasure. You have rightly pointed out how mistaken were the people who, because the idea of Pakistan was new and unfamiliar to them, thought Pakistan would have but only an ephemeral existence. None can now doubt, in your words, Mr. Chairman that a new Power was born among the nations of the world on August 14, 1947. The difficulties and the tribulations through which Pakistan has passed have helped to strengthen and temper the new State into steel, which is now, well and truly set upon the course on the uncharted seas of the future. The people who have made the effort which secured their separate freedom in the face of derision, disbelief and the utmost political opposition will not fail to make the additional effort necessary to consolidate their liberties, and any delusion or elusion from which some people still suffer, let me make it clear, that the sooner they bring their notion–Pakistan surrendering to India or seeking Union with Central Government–the better it will be for peace and prosperity of both the Dominions and will help a great deal to establish goodwill and neighbourly good feelings.

I am glad to note that you are disaffiliating your Chambers from the Associated Chambers of Commerce of India as a necessary corollary of the partition, and intend to form an Association of your Pakistan Chambers of Commerce.

You, Mr. Chairman, have rightly given pride of place to cotton in dealing with trade and commerce. I am glad to know that you have recognised that Pakistan’s cotton policy could not have been more liberal or less restrictive than it was until the impact of India’s decision to decontrol cloth and refuse it to us except in return for cotton, forced measures of regulation on us. Even so, all contracts made before 23rd January 1948 by traders in Pakistan–national or foreign–were honoured. That the cotton trade should have shown such admirable capacity to adjust itself to changing conditions is a matter for gratification. I would like to express the appreciation of the Government of Pakistan for the manner in which traders have played their part in helping to move cotton to the port and from the port to the markets of the world.

You have also referred at some length to the import policy of the Government of Pakistan and internal controls exercised within the country and have pleaded that, as few handicaps should be placed on trading as possible. Regulation and restriction with their attendant administrative evils will be imposed only where conditions compel, and any expressions of opinion you care to make from time to time will always receive my Ministry’s careful thought. I can assure you on behalf of the Government of Pakistan that it is their intention and policy to let the channels of free trading flow as freely as possible. In so far as the internal controls on essential commodities are concerned, my Government have already decided to review them at a conference with the Provinces in an attempt to relax and remove as many of these as circumstances would now permit So far as overseas trade is concerned a considerable sector of imports has been released from licensing by the notification of an Open General Licence for a wide range of goods coming from Commonwealth sterling countries. This list will be kept under constant review with the object of expanding it and the question of including therein imports and other soft currency areas is now receiving the attention of the Ministry for Commerce. The situation in regard to dollar imports and other hard currencies is, of course very difficult and licensing must continue to protect the balance of payments. Even in this field, however, you can assist by bending your energies to directing and increasing our exports to dollar and hard currency countries. This, fortunately, should not be difficult in the case of the major Pakistan raw materials and I shall look forward, Gentlemen to your constant support in this matter. Anything that Government cans do to facilitate exports to these areas by removing as many restrictions as possible will be done. I have little doubt, gentlemen, that your efforts in this direction will bear fruit as we are rich in the commodities which the world so badly requires, like cotton, jute, hides, skins and wool. You have made a plea that in the interests of trade. Government should make an announcement of the import policy in good time. The Government of Pakistan fully appreciates this view and will do all they can to make as early an announcement as circumstances would permit. The uncertain factors, which delayed the announcement of their policy in the past will, Government hopes, not recur in future.

The complete breakdown of the banking and financial mechanism in the West Punjab is a matter which government action alone cannot remedy. We can make the conditions as favourable as possible but bankers alone can repair the machine. It is our unalterable determination to maintain law and order and to secure and retain public confidence in our administration of affairs. In this context and given your goodwill, the reconstruction and restoration of our commerce and trade should proceed apace. This is my appeal to you today, Gentleman, to make a steady and sustained effort to help us to help you.

There is one matter, Mr. Chairman, which you have mentioned only in passing, namely, the statement issued by my Government on the Industrial Policy of Pakistan. The statement is of such far- reaching character that I would ask of you as a business community to examine it with the care and attention which the importance of the subject and the direct bearing it has on your own well-being requires. That my Government should have taken time to consider matters carefully before formulating their policy, which must vitally, effect the future of the country, is a matter that need not cause any sense of frustration. For I am reminded in the connection of an observation of that wiseman, Francis who said–”It is good to commit the beginnings of all great actions to Argos with his hundred eyes and the ends to Briarcus with his hundred hands; first to watch and then to speed” Whilst I do not propose to recapitulate the statement here, I would like to call your particular attention to the keen desire of the Government of Pakistan to associate individual initiative and private enterprise at every stage of industrialisation. The number of industries Government has reserved for management by themselves consists of Arms and Munitions of War, generation of Hydel Power and manufacture of Railway wagons, Telephone, Telegraph and Wireless apparatus. All other industrial activity is left open to private enterprise, which would be given every facility a Government can give for the establishment and development of industry. Government will seek to create conditions in which industry and trade may develop and prosper by undertaking surveys of Pakistan’s considerable resources of minerals, schemes for the development of country’s water and power resources plans for the improvement of transport services and the establishment of the ports and an Industrial Finance Corporation. Just as Pakistan is agriculturally the most advanced country in the Continent of Asia as mentioned by you, I am confident that if it makes the fullest and the best use of its considerable agricultural wealth in the building up of her industries, it will, with the traditions of craftsmanship for which her people are so well known and with their ability to adjust themselves to new techniques, soon make its mark in the industrial field. I am glad to know that you are favourably impressed with the concessions announced by the Finance Minister to new industrial enterprises in the matter of Income Tax and depreciation that you regard the statement as holding out more encouragement to new industry than the corresponding statement of policy made by the Government of India. If you want any clarification of any aspect of the policy, my Government will be only too willing to furnish the same.

Fortunately, in the port of Karachi, we have adequate facilities to handle not only the trade of Western Pakistan but also such trade as offers for Afghanistan and the adjoining areas of the Indian Dominion. For reasons into which I need not here enter, this trade has suffered a severe setback since partition. I hope that in everybody’s interest you will endeavor to restore Karachi’s standing in this regard. I have no doubt that the port of Karachi has a very bright future. It is the only port, which serves this side of Pakistan, and the location of the Pakistan Naval Headquarters had added greatly to its importance. I can look with confidence to its rapid development. The scheme for remodelling the East Wharf and the provision of Naval and Commercial Dry Docks is under our active consideration and should, when completed, make Karachi one of the most modern ports. I may assure the business community that I am watching with keen interest the present and future interests of the port.

The end of the period of “Standstill” and the consequent entry of India and Pakistan into normal international relations should advance and give precision to the movement of trade. Bonding facilities are being provided by my Government in Karachi port for this purpose. On the other side of the sub-continent, the Government of India has also agreed to provide bonding facilities in Calcutta so that from now on, the capacity of the port of Chittagong to handle raw jute will be supplemented by transit facilities through the port of Calcutta.

In the field of Civil Aviation, Pakistan is fortunate in having at Karachi, the best-equipped airport in the East. Its position and climate are in its favour and now that Karachi has become the Capital of Pakistan, there is no likelihood of the Airport ever losing its importance. Its pre-eminent position will be maintained, as we are alive to the need of its continued development in accordance with the international standards and to the need of facilitating in every way national and international air transport operations. Karachi will remain one of the main centers of international air traffic as most of the progressive countries of the world have approached us for bilateral air transport agreements and we already have agreements with U.S., France, Netherlands, Iraq and recently negotiated agreement with India and Ceylon. Delegations from U.K and other countries are expected in Karachi soon. For all these Karachi will remain the airport of entry and departure. The use of Bombay as the port of entry for Trans-World Airlines was provided for in Air Transport Agreement between U.S.A. and India before partition and does not indicate a subsequent tendency to transfer operation from Karachi to Bombay. On this service Karachi Airport was used, in the first instance, as a temporary measure pending the provision of health facilities at Santa Cruz. You have referred to the rise in airline operating costs occasioned by the recently increased cost of aviation spirits in Pakistan. This is question, which I have, no doubt will be considered by my Government in the light of your observations.

I am glad to hear that you have appreciated the difficulties which beset Orient Airways in establishing, at a very short notice, vital air communications within Pakistan between Eastern and Western Pakistan and between Karachi and Delhi and between Karachi and Bombay. These agreements had to be made on a temporary basis while a long-term national air transport was being formulated. The Government announced their policy on the 5th of December 1947, limiting air transport operations to two commercial airlines to be selected for the operation of all the scheduled services to be licensed by the Government. The names of these companies will be announced shortly together with the routes to be operated by them subject to finalisation of agreement recently negotiated with the Government of India. To serve these companies and to a large extent, the Royal Pakistan Air Force, it is also proposed to establish, at Karachi a company to carry out major overhaul and repair of aircraft, the training of mechanics and maintenance engineers, and such other common services as the Government and airlines may require. The Government will participate financially in this enterprise and plans for the establishment of this company are now under active consideration of the Government.

You have referred to the difficulties experienced by your members on account of the uncertainty of booking restrictions. As you are aware, booking restrictions have been rendered necessary on account of coal shortage due to spasmodic and insufficient receipt from India. The NorthWestern Railway has always endeavoured to move as much traffic as possible with their available resources. The movement of refugees placed a heavy strain on the Railway’s capacity at a time when coal receipts were at their lowest, but in spite of these difficulties essential goods, e.g. food-stuffs, kept on moving though restrictions had perforce to be imposed on the movement of goods carried under lower priorities. The Railways, however, relaxed restrictions to the extent possible whenever there was even a slight improvement in coal receipts, but whenever the coal position deteriorated restrictions were reimposed. In spite of the manifold difficulties created by inadequate supplies of coal from India, the refugee traffic, the numerous staff problems created by partition, the Railway administration, as and when the position improved, restored the facilities which had to be curtailed from time to time. I hope that the Chamber would appreciate their efforts in keeping the rail transport going. There was some improvement in the coal position on the NorthWestern Railway during February and March and as you are aware, unrestricted booking was resumed with effect from 4th March in local bookings and from 12th April in foreign bookings. Unfortunately, coal supplies from India have been inadequate during April and, although some of the coal ordered from the U.S.A. has been received, stocks are dwindling. Representations have been made to India, and it is hoped that there will be no reimposition of the previous unfortunate restrictions, except those occasionally imposed for operational reasons.

As regards the complaint that the railway staffs at stations are unaware of the restrictions imposed from time to time, I am advised that all restrictions are conveyed to stations immediately on their imposition. It is possible that in the early days after partition, due to large-scale transfers of staffs, there was a certain amount of dis-organisation resulting in incorrect information being furnished to merchants. The NorthWestern Railway has, however, taken suitable action to ensure that correct information relating to restrictions is conveyed to merchants.

As regards preparatition claims, I hope you are aware of the provisions of the Indian Independence (Rights, Property and Liabilities) Order 1947, under which the liabilities and financial obligations of the governor-general in Council, outstanding immediately before 15th August, 1947, devolved on the Dominion of India. The Pakistan Government has already made the position in this respect clear in their press note of the 25th March 1948. The matter is under correspondence with the Government of India and it is hoped that a settlement in regard to this outstanding question will be reached at an early date.

Reference has been made by you to the difficulties and anxieties, which naturally spring, from shortage of residential and office accommodation in this town. The Government of Pakistan has, subject to the approval of the Constituent Assembly, decided to locate the permanent Capital of Pakistan at Karachi. Detailed planning of the layout will take some time but this should not delay construction of some residential accommodation. In this field, as in many others, gentlemen, you have a big contribution to make. There are vast open areas where buildings could, with advantage, be constructed. Building materials such as cement and stone are available in abundance, though steel and timber are rather scarce. All the same, my Government would like to see the business community take up a program of large-scale building construction in Karachi.

Mr. Chairman, Commerce and Trade are the very lifeblood of the nation. I can no more visualise a Pakistan without traders than I can one without cultivators or civil servants. I have no doubt that in Pakistan, traders and merchants will always be welcome and that they, in building up their own fortunes, will not forget their social responsibility for a fair and square deal to one and all, big and small. Government have for sometime been perturbed over the constantly rising spiral of prices of the necessities of life in Pakistan. They are now engaged in a study of how best the spiral could be broken and prices brought down. I have little doubt that my Government can confidently count on your full support in every measure they may decide to take to achieve this object

Commerce, Gentlemen, is more international than culture and it behaves you to behave in such a way that the power and prestige of Pakistan gain added strength from every act of yours. I have no doubt the Commerce of Pakistan would be an effective instrument in the establishment and maintenance of high standards of business integrity and practice. If Pakistani goods are to establish for themselves a reputation all their own, a beginning must be made now and here. I assure you, Gentlemen, that anything my Government can do to achieve this end, and they shall do. I would like Pakistan to become a synonym and hallmark for standard and quality in the market places of the world.

Let me, Mr. Chairman, thank you once again for the honour you have done me in asking me to be the guest of your Chamber on this occasion. I wish you and your Chamber well in the many years that lie ahead of us and may you as true Pakistanis help to reconstruct and build Pakistan to reach mighty and glorious status amongst the comity of nations of the world and that let us pray that Pakistan will make its contribution for peace, happiness and prosperity of the world.

Pakistan Zindabad