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“Few individuals significantly alter the course of history,” wrote Stanley Wolpert in the preface to his book on Mr Jinnah. “Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three.” By 1940, the mystical bond linking Jinnah and the people was so profound that nobody could challenge Jinnah’s leadership of the Muslims of India. He was their sole spokesman.

Beverly Nichols, who first met Mr Jinnah on December 18, 1943, called him a giant, the most important man in Asia. “India is likely to be the world’s greatest problem for some years to come, and Mr Jinnah is in a position of unique strategic importance. He can sway the battle this way or that as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to the left, to the right, to the front, to the rear at his bidding and at nobody else’s… that is the point.” Without Jinnah, it is safe to say, there would have been no Pakistan. Rarely, in the history of human endeavour, have so many owed so much to one, single, solitary person.

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By Mohammad Rai

Jinnah has left an enduring legacy in the shape of Pakistan. However, if his vision and aspirations for Pakistan are to be attained, a lot still reckons to be accomplished. And today our politicians, instead of just giving statements praising Jinnah, need to emulate him in words and actions.

Right from his childhood, Jinnah was head and shoulders from the crowd. His childhood friend Nanji Jafar remembers, “once Jinnah, only fourteen, came to me and said don’t play in the dust; it spoils your clothes and dirties hands. We must stand up and play cricket.” It was this sense of personal dignity and self-confidence that defines Jinnah right from his early life. Sadly, stateliness and honour have long been lost in our political elite.

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By Sameen Khan

I saw Mr Jinnah for the first time when he came to speak on the invitation of the Muslim University Union in the famous Strachey Hall. My class fellow and close friend Fasihuddin Ahmed, who was also a nephew of Dr Ziauddln Ahmed, the Vice Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University, asked me if I was going or wanted to go to hear Mr Jinnah speak. I said: “The hall will be full with students, how shall we get in?” But Fasih took me there and we entered the hall from the backside. We sat near the dice where students were piling up their autograph books to be signed by Jinnah. I think the Vice President of the University Union (the President was always a professor) was perhaps Shamsul Hoda/Haq from Bengal, who delivered an eloquent speech and prepared the audience for Jinnah’s speech. When his name was announced, there was complete silence in the hall. He delivered an eloquent speech and, perhaps, in this speech said: “Aligarh is the arsenal of Muslim India.” But the only sentence that I remember till now is “build your character”, and since then I have tried to do just that. That was my first encounter with Mr Jinnah.

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Credit: Dr Ghulam Nabi Kazi

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Credit: Dr Ghulam Nabi Kazi

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From "Jinnah Creator of Pakistan" by Hector Bolitho, first published in 1954

As it turned out the ambulance sent was without fuel.

"Blow, blow, thou winter wind, Thou art not so unkind as man's ingratitude: Thy tooth is not so keen, Because thou art not seen, Although thy breath be rude." --- --- King Lear by William Shakespeare.

This was the first act of treason committed in the history of Pakistan and nobody is even curious to find out who perpetrated it.

Credit: Dr Ghulam Nabi Kazi

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From Hector Bolitho's brilliant biography, first published in 1954.

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From "Jinnah Creator of Pakistan" by Hector Bolitho, first published in 1954

Mrs Sarojini Naidu, the first Governor of UP after Partition, reportedly had a 'crush' on Jinnah. Click here to see her picture card sent to Mr Jinnah in 1917.

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It is a Vickers Viking aircraft and is currently on display at the new Pakistan Airforce Museum at Shahrae Faisal, Karachi which is open to the public.

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Mayor Hakim M Ahsan, Sindh Governor G H Hidayatullah and Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan listening to him

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Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Mohammad Chaudhry with foreign delegates of the International Judicial Conference evince interest in the statues of Fatima Jinnah and Quaid-e-Azam at the National Heritage Museum at Shakkarparian in Islamabad .
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By Dr Raja Muhammad Khan

Quaid-e-Azam in Kashmir
Quaid-i-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah is among the few leaders of the 20th century, who are recipients of the greatest tributes. While, Sir Aga Khan considered him “the greatest man he ever met”, Mr. Nichols, the author of `Verdict on India’, called him “the most important man in Asia.” Other gauged him as “an outstanding figure of 20th century not only in India, but in the whole world.” Since a lot has been said, and written about the Quaid’s unparallel commitment with people of Kashmir and Kashmiri cause, the fact remains that, the first ever Muslim Political party of sub-continent the; “All India Muslim League” was formed in 1906, at the residence of a Kashmiri of Bengal, Sir Salimullah Khan. Above all, the greatest Philosopher, poet and Scholar Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal, a Kashmiri himself, initially sponsored the idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims of Sub-continent in 1930. He also made it clear that, the dream of Muslim India would be incomplete without the freedom of the Islamic State of Kashmir. In a way, it was the formal announcement of Kashmir as an inalienable part of the new ideological Muslim State in Sub-continent, Pakistan.

Quaid-e-Azam, Fatima Jinnah and the Liaquats in Kashmir
As revealed through the available archives, Quaid-i-Azam, visited Kashmir at least four times. First time, Quaid visited Kashmir 1926. Apparently, it was a private visit to spend few holidays in Kashmir, but, practically, this visionary leader had used the visit to assess the socio-economic condition of the people of Kashmir, under the cruel rule of Maharaja Hari Singh. Indeed, there was no political awakening in the State, nor Kashmiris could form political parties. Earlier, once some noted Kashmiris dared to submit a memorandum to the Viceroy of India, demanding reforms in the educational and economic sectors, and to redress the grievances of Kashmiri masses, the Dogra Government in Kashmir victimized and tortured them. The Quaid uneasily watched this situation and later, got a special resolution passed in the All India Muslim League Working Committee session held in Lahore in 1926. The unanimously passed resolution drew the attention of the Maharajah’s Government towards the educational and economic backwardness of the Muslims of Kashmir and requested him to improve the living standard of the Muslim masses, forming bulk of the population. Quaid again visited Kashmir in 1929, and met with some salient leaders of the state. Both these visits remained low profile and to watch the situation there.

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While Liaquat Ali Khan is generally regarded as Jinnah's right hand man, this may not be entirely true. Dr Hamida Khuhro's biography of her father reveals that Jinnah told Mr Khuhro "The prime minister (Liaquat) is average while the remaining cabinet is below average". They are believed to have differning opinions on the issue of minorities.

When Mr Jinnah was convalescing in Ziarat, only 2-3 weeks from his death, Liaquat Ali Khan and Chaudhry Muhammed Ali arrived unannounced one evening. "Do you know why they have come" Jinnah asked his sister and dismissing one of her theories replied "They have come to see whether I will live or die". Shortly after the visit Mr Jinnah told his physician that it did not matter whether he lived or died.

When Mr Jinnah arrived in Karachi on the last day of his life (11 September 1948), an ambulance sent to him wihout fuel, which hastened his end. The Prime Minister had been adivsed by the Military Secretary of the Governor General not to come to the aerodrome. Indeed the Prime Minister reached the Governor General's house after his soul had departed his frail body. Two pages from Miss Fatima Jinnah's book 'My Brother' were censored out while his physician's book was proscribed in 1948 only to be released in 1976 on Mr Jinah's birth centenary. Here the two are seen easing their tension through nicotine.

Credit: Dr Ghulam Nabi Kazi

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Clockwise from left: Abdur Rab Nishtar, Baldev Singh, Acharya Kirpalani, Vallabhai Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru, Louis Mountbatten, Mohammed Ali jinnah, and Liaquat Ali Khan. The butcher of Gurdaspur Lord Ismay is seated at the back.

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